Industry Terms and Acronyms
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Allows user to rotate the spout of the faucet after tightening in drum. This
ensures that the spout always points down.
mixing, the process of putting air into a mixture. Depending on your
application, this may or may not be a desired effect.
Air Pump Ratio: The
ratio of inlet air pressure to product delivery pressure. High ratio pumps (40:1
or higher) will move thicker products over a longer distance, but at a reduced
rate. Low ratio pumps (1:1, 2:1) handle thinner liquids at higher volumes or
Antistatic Agent: A
chemical substance that can be applied to the surface of a plastic container or
liner, or incorporated in the plastic from which the container or liner is to be
made. Its function is to render the surface of the plastic article less
susceptible to accumulation of electrostatic charges. Electrostatic charge
attracts and holds fine dust on the surface of the container or liner. Static
discharge may spark which may cause an explosion of flammable product.
Popular wrap around "belt" heater affixed to the exterior of the container.
Blow Molding: A method
of fabrication in which warm plastic is placed inside between the two halves of
a mold (cavity) and forced to assume the shape of that mold cavity by the use of
air pressure. Examples of blow-molded containers are bottles and tight-head
plastic pails and drums.
Bolt Ring: A closing
device which requires a bolt and nut to secure the cover to the body of an
BPA: Bisophesnol-A is an additive mixed with resin to make plastic products, that helps strengthen its durability. Mostly used in industrial products.
Bung: A threaded
closure used on the head or body of a drum or tank.
Bung Adapter for Pumps:
A coupling, usually threaded 2" NPS, that holds the pump securely in the drum
bung opening. Also helps control product evaporation through the bung opening.
Bung Adapter for Coarse (Buttress) Threaded Drums:
A buttress-threaded device that accepts an NPS threaded bung or other accessory.
Bung Entering: Mixer
shaft and propellers that fit through the containerï¿½s standard 2" bung opening.
Buttress Thread: A
design of thread profile (cross-section) which takes the form of a right
triangle or slight modification of that form. It is usually positioned so that
the right angle is at the bottom of the thread cross-section and adjacent to the
neck of the bottle or flange finish. The horizontal leg of the right triangle is
the bearing surface for a matching cap thread. Commonly referred to as coarse
thread, and used on large bottles and plastic drums and pails.
Efficient method of evenly warming multiple containers at one time.
Carboy: A largeware
container, typically 10 to 20 gallon capacity, used principally for acids and
Capacity: The amount of
space inside a container provided for a given amount of product.
Centipoise (cps): A
common measure of the viscosity (thickness) of a liquid. It is important to know
your productï¿½s cps when selecting items like mixers or pumps.
design that uses a spinning impeller (propeller) to drive the liquid.
CFR 49 Part 171:Code
of Federal Regulations Applicability of Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) to
persons and functions.
Chime: The top or
bottom edge of the drum formed when the body and head of the drum are joined.
Irregular product flow that pulses and splashes as it leaves the container.
Caused by lack of air venting into container as product is drained.
Closure: A term used to
describe a metal or molded cap or plug which effects a primary seal when
properly applied to a container.
For a DOT Specification or UN standard packaging subject to the requirements of
part 178 of this subchapter, a person must perform all functions necessary to
bring the package into compliance with parts 173 and 178 of this subchapter, as
identified by the packaging manufacturer or subsequent distributor (for example,
applying closures consistent with the manufacturer's closure instructions) in
accordance with ï¿½178.2 of this subchapter. A person must maintain a copy of the
manufacturer's notification, including closure instructionsï¿½.ï¿½
Closed Top: A term used
to describe a container with a
non-removable top. Most drums of this type have bung caps.
Coking: The process by
which a product that is being heated is broken down in the absence of oxygen.
Also called charring.
of the walls of a container.
Copolymer: A material
whose chemical structure is made up of long molecular chains of two different
structured chemical units (monomers) which repeat a more or less regular pattern
in the chain.
Counter: Device that
shows the amount of product pumped by counting revolutions of the pump handle.
Some models have a "totalizer" feature which shows cumulative usage. Because
actual flow is not measured, a counter is not as accurate as a flowmeter.
Cradle Heater: Designed
to accept and warm a drum horizontally. Allows the user to dispense product from
Weight per unit of volume of a substance, expressed in grams per cubic
centimeter, pounds per cubic foot, etc.
Diaphragm: A rubber
disk usually found inside a diaphragm pump housing. In an air-operated pump, the
diaphragm expands and contracts when air is injected into the chamber. This
pumping action causes liquid to be moved.
Diaphragm Pump: Air
operated pump that uses a flexible diaphragm to separate the pumping chambers.
Handles high viscosity liquids or liquids with suspended solids.
Direct Drive: A shaft
directly coupled to a motor. The shaft will turn at the speed of the motor,
typically 1725 RPM for an electric motor.
Discharge Head: The
height of a column of water a pump will lift. Measured in inches or feet of
water. Directly relates to the output pressure.
Double-Action: A piston
pump that delivers product on both forward and backward strokes of the handle.
D.O.T.: Department of
Transportation. A governmental body regulating the shipment of materials on
Factory Mutual (FM):
Nationally recognized independent testing laboratory. Evaluates the ability of
equipment to meet safety requirements under intended use.
Fill Point: The level
to which a container must be filled to furnish a designated quantity of the
Flange: A permanently
installed drum component which receives a male threaded bung.
Flash Arrestor: Feature
of most safety faucets and safety pumps that prevents "flashback" from an
external fire through an open safety faucet or safety pump.
or electronic device that accurately measures the actual flow of product.
process of bonding fluorine gas to plastic. Inhibits the attack of certain kinds
of products, and prevents plastic container paneling and distortion, reduces
chemical permeation, odor emission, or flavor loss.
Foaming: During mixing
or filling, the undesired result of excessive aeration of a mixture.
Folding Props: A
propeller that collapses when the shaft is not in motion. When shaft goes into
motion, the propeller spins open. Allows the use of effective, larger diameter
propellers than otherwise possible in a tight-head container.
Follower Plate: A metal
plate that fits inside a container that constantly presses down on heavy
products like grease. Used during pumping operations, prevents air pockets and
ensures steady product flow.
Foot-Pound: A unit of
torque, equal to one pound of force applied through a lever arm of one foot.
Full Length Heater:
Completely covers exterior of drum. Most even and energy efficient method of
Fusible Link: Soft,
heat sensitive metal latch that holds a faucet or safety funnel open. In the
event of a fire, the link melts, allowing the faucet or funnel to snap shut.
Type of valve that uses a sliding "gate" across the face of the valve to control
flow. Used with thick, heavy liquids.
Gauge: A standard
measure of the thickness of steel sheet. The higher the number, the thinner the
steel. 18-gauge steel is .0478", or 1.2mm thick.
Gear Driven: A term
used to classify mixers or agitators that have an output speed (propeller speed)
that has been reduced from the original input motor speed. These units are
typically 420 RPM. These "workhorse" mixers have larger diameter propellers and
are ideal for mixing viscous products without including air.
Gear Pump: Special type
of rotary pump. Uses step-down gearbox for pumping very viscous liquids.
GPM (Gallons Per Minute):
The maximum flow output "under ideal conditions".
High nickel-content steel alloy with excellent resistance to acids.
Designed for use in specific hazardous areas when heating flammables. See also
Red Label Area.
Head: The bottom and/or
top of a tight-head drum or pail.
Head Space: The space
between the level of the contents in the container and the underside of the
head. It is intended to furnish space for expansion of product due to heat or
other action after packing.
A heater that is dipped into the material to be
heated, and transfers heat by direct contact. Provides quick heating of products
with good "Heat Receptivity" (products which donï¿½t easily burn).
Propeller-like device at base of shaft inside of a pump tube. Develops high
pressure and low flow of liquids.
Lever Action Pump:
Uses short stroke lever motion to operate pump.
Short handle travel is often more convenient than up-and-down stroke pumps.
Lever Lock Ring:
Closing device for securing the cover to the body of an open-head drum. Relies
on a lever-activated mechanism to bring the ends of the ring together.
Lining: A coating, used
in the interior of steel drums or pails, which protects the product from contact
with the metal of the container.
Pump design that magnetically couples the motor with the impeller shaft. The
motor is chemically and electrically isolated from the liquid being pumped.
Mantle Heater: Similar
to the concept of a "crockpot". A small metal container (usually 5 gallon or
less) is placed down into an air bath of evenly distributed heat. Ideal for heat
sensitive products because it applies heat very evenly.
Precision pump that delivers an exact amount of liquid with each stroke or
revolution of the handle.
Mold (Plastic): (V) To
shape plastic parts or finished articles by heat and pressure. (N) The cavity
into which the plastic composition is placed and from which it takes its form.
The part of a container where the bottle cross-section is decreased to form the
Neck Finish (Glass and Plastic):
The glass or plastic surrounding the opening of a bottle shaped to accommodate a
that wonï¿½t spark when struck against another object. Examples are brass,
aluminum, and zinc.
NPS: National Pipe
Straight threads used in steel drums. Most steel drums have both a 2" and a 3/4"
NPT: National Pipe
Tapered are generally the male threads on faucets or other devices that screw
into NPS female threads. They form a tight seal without requiring a gasket.
A drum with removable cover.
Provision for locking a faucet or pump closed with a small padlock, preventing
unauthorized access to the contents of the drum.
Piston Pump: Push-pull
motion on the handle side of pump body moves a piston which pumps product.
Higher output and better lift capability than stroke or lever-action pumps.
Plug: A closure with
threads found on the head or body. See Bung.
polymerized ethylene resin, used especially for containers, kitchenware, and
tubing, or in the form of films and sheets for packaging.
More Information On
Pump design that uses "worm" or "screw" instead of spinning propeller. Handles
thick, paste-like products and minimizes air entrapment within the product flow.
Red Label Area:
An area designated for the storage, mixing, or dispensing
of flammable products. Refers to the red color of the UN/DOT identification
label found on containers of these products.
Reversible: A handy
feature found on some pumps, which allows product to be pumped into a container
as well as out of it.
Reinforcement rings in the form of hooped expansions in the body of the drum.
They strengthen the shell of the container.
Rotary Pump: Rotary
handle action turns an impeller to pump product in a continuous flow. Higher
output than stroke or lever action pumps.
Rotators: A special
mixer which slowly rotates the container horizontally. Ideally suited for
putting sediments and solids back into suspension.
propeller-like device at base of shaft inside of a pump tube. Develops low
pressure and high flow of liquids.
RPM (Revolutions Per Minute):
Represents how fast the mixerï¿½s shaft and propellers turn.
Faucets that are Factory Mutual (FM) and/or Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
approved for dispensing liquids classified as flammable.
Safety Pumps: Pumps
that are Factory Mutual (FM) and/or Underwritersï¿½ Laboratories (UL) approved for
pumping liquids classified as flammable.
Pump design that incorporates special materials and permits easy and complete
disassembly of the pump for thorough cleaning. Used for pumping food products.
Usually meets USDA/FDA regulations.
Seal-Less: Pump design
without a mechanical, or lip seal to prevent product leakage around the pump
shaft. Seal-less pumps can run dry without damage.
Critically important internal pump component that determines efficient pump
operation and prevents leakage. Seals and O-rings must be chemically compatible
with the product to be pumped.
that closes automatically when the handle is released. Prevents accidental
spills caused by leaving the faucet unattended in the open position.
that automatically allows air into the container as product is drained out. This
prevents "spitting" or "chugging".
Shakers: A type of
agitator that shakes the container, rejuvenating the product inside. A typical
application is "paint" cans.
de-homogenization, or breaking up, of a mixture by high-speed agitation. Can be
a problem with polymers or other shear sensitive solutions. Use a low speed
(RPM) mixer to minimize shearing.
Silk Screen Printing: A
printing method, that uses a pattern of an insoluble material, in outline on a
finely woven fabric (the silk screen), so that when the ink is drawn across it,
it is able to pass through the screen to the print medium in the desired areas
Steam Heater/Cooler: A
device in which hot or cold water, refrigerant or steam is allowed to pass
through its embossed outer panel channels to warm or cool drum or pail.
Stroke Pump: Simple
up-and-down handle action. Much like a hand operated bicycle tire pump.
Inexpensive, but slow.
Suction Tube: Intake
tube of a pump placed inside the container. Product is pulled into the pump
through this tube. Some suction tubes contain strainers to prevent debris from
clogging the pump. Telescoping tubes are adjustable in length to fit different
Surface Treating: Any
method of treating a plastic so as to alter the surface and render it receptive
to inks, lacquers and adhesives. Examples are chemical, flame, or corona
Siphon Pump: A pump
that uses the principle that a liquid seeks its own level. The pump handle
primes the pump, then the flow continues by itself until the liquid level in the
supply container falls to the level in the delivery container.
A type of drum or pail on which the cover does not come
off. Access into the drum is accomplished through a threaded plug.
Torque: Force in a
circular motion as applied to a closure on a container, either to attach or
remove the closure. See Foot-Pound.
Transfer Pump: Another
name for rotary or piston pump.
(Uniform Distributed Load):
Refers to the load capacity of a platform such as a spill
United Nations international standards for the transport of dangerous goods,
adopted by the U.S. Department of Transportation (Title 49 of the Code of
Handy feature found on air and some electric equipment
such as pumps or mixers which allow for adjustment of the motorï¿½s speed for
Viscosity: The flow
characteristic of a fluid. High viscosity fluids are thicker and flow more
whirlpool effect caused by a mass of fluid turning about an axis. This can be
achieved by centering a mixer unit in the center of the tank and avoided by
off-centering the mixer unit.
U.S. Food and
Department of Agriculture
Fire Code (UFC) in
40 of the Code of Federal Regulations
standard 188.8.131.52.3 Both
the UFC and IFC cover the standards regarding secondary containment for
facilities that store hazardous materials and not just hazardous wastes that are
the focus of the EPA standards. The UFC and IFC are very similar except that the
IFC goes into more detail in regards to outdoor design of secondary containment,
monitoring and drainage systems. Both state that buildings or portions thereof,
used for any of the following shall be provided with secondary containment to
prevent the flow of liquids to adjoining areas:
- Storage of liquids (including
corrosive, flammable, toxic and combustible) where the capacity of an
individual vessel exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or
- the aggregate capacity of multiple
vessels exceeds 1000 gallons (3785 L);
- Storage of solids where the capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 550
lbs. (248 kg) or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 10,000
lbs. (4524 kg);
- Open-use liquids where the capacity of the multiple vessels or system
exceeds 1.1 gallons (4 L); or
- Open-use liquids where the capacity of multiple vessels or systems
exceeds 5.3 gallons (20 L).
Fire Code (IFC) in
40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 2704.2.
National Motor Freight Classification